Typhoid is a bacteria infection which is caused with high fever, vomiting and diarrhoea. It is caused by a bacteria known as Salmonella Typhi. If it is diagnosed early, it can be fatal to health. Mainly this infection is caused due to contaminated water and food and it is very common at the places where practice of washing hands is low. This disease is contagious means it can be spread from one person to another through cough or infected hands, etc. The cure for Typhoid is that it can be treated by antibiotics after diagnosis depending upon the severity.
Initially bacteria through the mouth and lives in the intestine for about 1 to 3 weeks. After it makes its way to the intestinal wall and bloodstream. Our immune system tries to fight with this bacteria as it lives in host cells and immune cells are safe to fight. However, till the time symptoms appear, the condition of the patient is serious and can be treated by antibiotics. The presence of the bacteria can be detected by the test of blood, stool, urine and bone marrow samples.
The incubation period of typhoid infection is 6 to 30 days after the entering of the bacteria. The main symptoms of typhoid are fever and rash. Fever is very high usually, upto 104 Fahrenheit and rashes do not appear to all the patients. If it appears then usually they are pink spots on the neck and abdomen. Other symptoms are:
Constipation, headaches, weakness, abdominal pain, vomiting, etc depending person to person.
Cure for Typhoid is possible with antibiotics only. Some effective antibiotics are:
Ciprofloxacin (Cipro): This drug is used to treat non pregnant adults. There is a similar drug known as ofloxacin which is also used. But now unfortunately many strains of salmonella typhi bacteria are no more susceptible to this drug, especially in southeast asia.
Azithromycin (Zithromax): This drug is prescribed to the persons who cannot take Ciprofloxacin or if the bacteria has a resistance against Ciprofloxacin.
Ceftriaxone: This is an injectable antibiotic which is used in more severe cases where Ciproflaxacin does not work.
These drugs can cause side effects and longer use can lead to the development of antibiotic resistant bacterial strain which will be more harmful.
Other treatment includes drinking plenty of fluids several times in a whole day and sometimes surgeries are done to heal the intestines holes made by the bacteria.
Cure for Typhoid is available but we need to take hygiene precautions to avoid the infections.